Chronic Wasting Disease Update

Chronic Wasting Disease in Michigan
Frequently Asked Questions

On August 25, 2008, The Michigan Departments of Agriculture (MDA) and Natural Resources (DNR) confirmed the state’s first case of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in a three-year old white-tailed deer from a privately-owned cervid (POC) facility in Kent County.

This document includes:
Definitions and Background Information on CWD
History of Kent County Case and Action Steps
Information for Hunters and Wildlife Watchers
For More Information
Definitions and Background Information on CWD

What is a privately-owned cervid (POC) facility?
Cervid species means members of the Cervidae family including, but not limited to, deer, elk, moose, reindeer, and caribou.

A privately-owned cervid facility is a privately-owned cervid livestock operation on privately-controlled lands capable of holding cervid species. This does not include accredited zoos or public institutions. POC facility operations may involve the producing, growing, propagating, using, harvesting, transporting, exporting, importing, or marketing of cervid species or cervid products under an appropriate registration.

POC facilities are required to be licensed under Public Act 190 of 2000, the Privately Owned Cervidae Producers Marketing Act. This law establishes standards governing privately-owned cervid livestock facilities, requiring the registration of cervid livestock facilities and establishing a regulatory and inspection process. The regulatory function has been transferred to the DNR, while the animal health and testing functions are performed by the MDA. In addition, MDA determines import and movement requirements, including issuing quarantines. This act outlines registration and reporting requirements, construction standards for facilities, and requires that facilities keep and maintain records of production, purchases, or imports.

How can you tell if a deer has CWD?
Infected animals may not show any symptoms of the disease for a long period of time, even years. In the later stages of the disease, however, infected animals begin to lose bodily functions and display abnormal behavior such as staggering or standing with very poor posture. Animals may have an exaggerated wide posture, or may carry the head and ears lowered. Infected animals become very emaciated (thus wasting disease) and will appear in very poor body condition. Infected animals will also often stand near water and will consume large amounts of water. Drooling or excessive salivation may be apparent. Note that these symptoms may also be characteristic of diseases other than CWD.

If you see a deer exhibiting these symptoms, you should accurately document the location of the animal immediately and call the Rap Line (1-800-292-7800). Do not attempt to contact, disturb, kill, or remove the animal.

How is CWD transmitted?
Current evidence suggests that the disease is transmitted through infectious, self-multiplying proteins (prions) contained in saliva and other fluids of infected animals. Susceptible animals can acquire CWD by direct exposure to these fluids or from contaminated environments. Once contaminated, research suggests that soil can remain a source of infection for long periods of time, making CWD a particularly difficult disease to eradicate.

Is CWD a risk to human health?
To date, there is no evidence that CWD presents a risk to humans. However, the World Health Organization has recommended that people and other animals not eat deer or elk that have been infected with CWD.

Some simple precautions should be taken when field dressing deer in the surveillance zone (from Wisconsin DNR):
· Wear rubber gloves when field dressing your deer.
· Bone out the meat from your deer.
· Minimize the handling of brain and spinal tissues.
· Wash hands and instruments thoroughly after field dressing is completed.
· Avoid consuming brain, spinal cord, eyes, spleen, tonsils and lymph nodes of harvested animals. (Normal field dressing coupled with boning out of a carcass will essentially remove all of these parts.)
· Request that your animal is processed individually, without meat from other animals being added to meat from your animal.

What other animals could be at risk?
CWD is a fatal neurological disease that affects deer, elk and moose. Research suggests humans, cattle, and other domestic livestock are resistant to natural transmission.

History of Case and Action Steps

How did officials find out about the infected deer?
The deer that tested positive at the Kent County breeding facility was a doe that had been recently culled by the owner of the facility because it was showing signs of sickness. Michigan law requires sick deer or culled deer on a POC facility be tested for disease. The samples from the Kent County deer tested “suspect positive” at Michigan State University Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, and were then sent to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Ames, Iowa, which confirmed the test results.

How did this deer catch CWD?
Officials do not yet know how the deer may have contracted the disease. The doe was born at the Kent County facility. DNR and MDA staff are currently reviewing records from the Kent County facility and at least five others to trace deer that have been purchased, sold or moved by the owners in the last five years. They will also be tracing elk that have been purchased, sold, or moved by the owners in the last seven years.

What are the immediate steps being taken within the privately-owned captive cervid (POC) industry?
The state has quarantined all POC facilities, including game ranches, prohibiting the movement of all privately-owned deer, elk, or moose—dead or alive. This is in addition to the current law that has prohibited importation of live cervids from out of state. The Michigan State Police and county sheriff’s offices have been notified to step up surveillance efforts on Michigan’s roads and highways to ensure that there is no movement of cervids in violation of the quarantine.

The Kent County facility where the deer was found has been depopulated and all carcasses will be tested. In addition, the other POC facilities that have received cervids from or sold cervids to the Kent County facility are being examined for signs of CWD.

What are the immediate steps being taken to protect the free-ranging wild deer herd? (See specific questions below for more details)
· A ban on baiting and feeding white-tailed deer has been put into effect for the entire Lower Peninsula of Michigan, along with increased enforcement efforts.
A nine- township surveillance zone has been established in Kent County
· Mandatory deer checks within the CWD surveillance zone in Kent County to test for CWD.
· Deer carcasses acquired within the CWD surveillance zone may not be moved out of this zone
· At least 300 deer must be tested within the surveillance zone and another 300 will be sampled in the rest of Kent County and all counties bordering Kent County to help determine if there may be CWD in the wild deer herd.
The rehabilitation and possession of live deer has been banned statewide

Information for Hunters and Wildlife Watchers

Why is there a ban on baiting and feeding deer and elk throughout the whole Lower Peninsula? What does this mean?
Michigan established a Surveillance and Response Plan for CWD in 2002. This contingency plan said that for any positive identification of CWD in Michigan (or within 50 miles of Michigan’s border), that the DNR Director shall issue an interim order to ban baiting and feeding within the affected peninsula.

Baiting and feeding unnaturally congregate deer into close contact, thus increasing the transmission of contagious diseases such as CWD and bovine tuberculosis. Transmission can occur from contact between animals, contamination of feed or water sources with saliva, urine, and/or feces, or contact with an infected facility or area. More rarely, an adult animal can transmit CWD to its offspring through direct contact.

Provisions of the baiting ban are:
· All grains, minerals, salt, fruits, vegetables, hay, or any other food materials, whether natural or manufactured, which may lure, entice or attract deer are prohibited. This ban does include mineral and salt blocks, but does not include natural or manufactured lures/scents that are not “food materials”.
· Food plots are not subject to the ban.
· Foods found scattered solely as the result of normal agricultural planting or harvesting practices, foods available to deer through normal agricultural practices of livestock feeding if the area is occupied by livestock actively consuming the feed on a daily basis, or standing farm crops under normal agricultural practices are not subject to the ban.
· Baiting is defined in the Wildlife Order as placing, depositing, tending, distributing, or scattering bait to aid in the taking of a deer.
· All counties in the entire Lower Peninsula are subject to the baitingban.
· The Upper Peninsula is not included in the ban.

Does this ban include other forms of animal baiting or feeding?
BEAR: As a result of the deer and elk baiting and feeding ban, no bear baiting with food materials other than meats, meat products, fish, fish products, or bakery products will be allowed in the Lower Peninsula at any time.

SONG BIRDS: Feed used in bird feeders should be provided in a way to make the grains inaccessible to deer.

Where is the surveillance area?
There are special restrictions for hunters taking deer within the townships within a five mile radius of the Kent County facility. This surveillance zone includes Tyrone, Solon, Nelson, Sparta, Algoma, Courtland, Alpine, Plainfield, and Cannon Townships, all in Kent County. A map can be found here:

Why are there mandatory deer checks in the surveillance zone?
At this point there is no live-animal test, no treatment and no vaccine for CWD. By the end of the 2008-2009 deer hunting season, the DNR must test at least 300 deer in the surveillance zone to perform adequate surveillance of the free-ranging white-tailed deer herd for CWD. Hunters can assist the DNR by allowing biologists to take samples from the deer they harvest, which will reduce the number of live deer needed to be taken by the agency for testing. The department will also be testing recent road kills.

What are the movement restrictions on free-ranging deer taken in the surveillance zone?
To prevent unintentional spread of CWD, the only parts of deer harvested in the surveillance zone that will be allowed to be transported out of the zone are boned meat, capes, and antlers cleaned of all soft tissues.

There are no movement restrictions on free-ranging deer taken in other parts of the state.

Deer taken at a game ranch or privately-owned captive cervid facility under quarantine are not allowed to be transported out.

What should I do if I see a deer that shows CWD symptoms?
You should accurately document the location of the animal and immediately and call the Rap Line (1-800-292-7800). Do not attempt to contact, disturb, kill, or remove the animal.
For More Information

If you have questions in addition to those above, please send them to Amy Spray at We will be updating this Frequently Asked Questions document as needed.

MUCC has a webpage devoted to information on CWD at:

More information on CWD is available on Michigan’s Emerging Diseases Web site at

CWD in Wisconsin (from Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources)

The Future of Michigan Hunting is Upon Us

By Glen Wunderlich
Outdoor Columnist
Professional Outdoor Media Association

While it may be difficult to predict with certainty how Michigan’s deer hunting will evolve over the next 20 years, an objective look at history and current trends are all we have to program into anyone’s crystal ball. Over the past 500 years, the national deer population has cycled through distinct phases – some threatening the very existence of whitetail deer. Beginning with exploitation by Native Americans from year1500 to year1800, deer numbers dropped from about 70 million to 30 million. Then a moderate recovery grounded in improved habitat from year 1800 to 1860, the population rebounded enough for European market hunters to capitalize on the herd for big money. By year 1900 the game numbers had reached their low point, and without a change in management strategy, the future of America’s deer hunting would have gone the way of the jackalope. (When’s the last time you saw one afield, anyway?) A period of protection and recovery took place through year 1975 with excise taxes collected from outdoors people providing the funds necessary to trap and transfer deer to other states that had decimated populations. Michigan became a leader in this noble effort, which became the foundation for what has been a most remarkable national recovery effort – so much so that the deer population is approximately what it was some 500 years ago.

Deer numbers are up and that’s the good news. Viewing current conditions through a toilet paper roll might easily lead one to believe that hunters can become complacent with all of the successful conservation efforts.

However, there are plenty of factors that will continue to affect overall hunter satisfaction, if we are honest enough to consider them. Facts do not cease to exist because they are ignored, and for that reason, it’s time for thinking hunters to put the toilet paper roller aside and get out the wide-angle lens.

Urban sprawl eliminates habitat. Although the cyclic nature of the housing market may have temporarily eased the pressure of sprawl, there’s no stopping it based on current trends. With less land, also comes a decrease in hunting land sizes.

Human and deer conflicts will increase in proportion to sprawl. Deer may eat your cotoneasters in your yard or they may come out of nowhere and ruin your car, your day, and their lives. You say it’s already happening? Just wait.

With forever-higher fees, an aging hunting fraternity passing on little tradition, and more non-hunting immigrants, hunter numbers will continue to decline.

Wildlife budgets will continue on current decline trends based on a lack of public support.

Diseases such as chronic wasting disease and tuberculosis will remain and most likely will expand into new areas.

The Animal rights movement is here to stay and along with it, public scrutiny of hunters’ conduct will grow.

Geez! And, I thought these were the good ol’ days.

All is not lost, my friends, but it will take a margin of cooperation heretofore unprecedented – private-land hunting cooperatives, that is.

Hunting cooperatives are already being formed and work like this: Groups of adjoining landowners pool resources of land in an effort to improve the quality of the deer herd and overall hunting experience. (They might pool equipment and get bulk-buying discounts for seed and fertilizer, too.) They are voluntary, can be any size, and landowners make mutually agreeable rules relative to protecting young bucks and harvesting an adequate number of does.

There’s more to the idea and I’ll take a more in-depth look into this concept and the future of deer hunting in upcoming posts.

Got Bait? Go Fish!

By Glen Wunderlich
Outdoor Columnist
Professional Outdoor Media Association

In light of the Michigan DNR’s recent mandate to ban all forms of baiting for deer in the Lower Peninsula, I am posting some words I wrote on the subject a few years ago.

About 25 years ago, while deer hunting along the St. Helen trail in the northern Lower Peninsula, I came across a bait pile and my immediate reaction had me thinking some poacher was at work. As a matter of fact, I really thought baiting was illegal. I then located a gut pile mere yards from the bait. Success? Maybe.

Notice that I said I was hunting. Without consulting Mr. Webster, I always thought hunting had more to do with seeking out the deer, sneaking around, and hiding somewhere after figuring out where deer might show up. And, that’s how I hunted, as did everyone else I ever knew.

As society’s need for instant gratification has grown, so has the issue of baiting. On one hand we have those pursuing deer and seemingly taking advantage of legal baiting laws, albeit much restricted today; on the other hand, we have non-baiting hunters and non-hunters raising questions of ethics, and concerns relative to horrifying herd disorders.

Since the inception of devastating diseases in Michigan and in our bordering Wisconsin, scientific studies have indicated hunters may be their own worst enemies from not only an ethical standpoint, but also from one of physiology. Unregulated baiting causes deer to concentrate in small areas for prolonged periods of time. Whereas, in more natural settings, they constantly move about as they graze. Where once we could legally dump a truckload of apples, corn, or whatever, as of last season, we were restricted to putting out no more than 2 gallons of bait per hunting site – and, those 2 gallons had to be spread in a minimum 10 foot by 10 foot area. Bait piles, as we knew them, have become illegal in Michigan, and based on scientific research, it makes sense to me apart from other personal considerations.

Let’s see how ol’ man Webster defines the word “hunt” in the form of a verb: 1) to go out to kill or catch (game) for food or sport, 2) to search eagerly or carefully for; try to find. Accordingly, whether one chooses to use bait or not, one can call himself a hunter. To me, however, the question comes down to why one hunts. Even though my approach to hunting parallels the second definition above, taking game is a fitting reward for preparation, effort, and application of skills. Wanton harvesting can also ruin a season of hunting in a sense. Let me explain.

It was October 1, 1996, opening day of archery season. In the evening session, strapped 21 feet above ground to a white oak tree, along a natural bait-less travel route, I let an arrow fly at a 7-point buck 30 yards straight ahead. He appeared to “jump the string”, or in other words, to duck under the path of the arrow. Convincing myself of a clean miss, I stayed put hoping for another opportunity before darkness descended. Within a half hour, 4 does congregated 10 yards in front of my stand creating natural decoys for what I believed to be the missed buck returning to my neighborhood. He presented the perfect quartering-away angle at 25 yards and I sent another arrow to the target. I anxiously waited until dark so my pals could finish their stints and we all went tracking together.

The trail lead to a 6-point, which had expired mere yards from a second buck – the 7-point I had “missed”. Although there was reason for celebration, there was reason for regret shortly thereafter. The perfect double-lung kills ended my 90-day plus buck hunting season as quickly as it began. Success? I guess it depends on which version of Mr. Webster’s hunt description seems most fitting to you.

I grew quite a bit as a hunter that day. Although I didn’t purposely take 2 bucks that day, I had cause to reflect on what the reality of my error meant to my hunting time afield. I relish the pursuit of deer in archery season, firearms season and ever so much in the muzzleloading season.

If I were to hunt in accordance with Webster’s #1 definition, I am sure I could whack ‘em and stack ‘em and get on with some other mundane aspect of life. However, 1996 taught me an enriching lesson culminating in a hunting style that affords me the opportunity to behold the solemnity of nature. A rewarding harvest ends it.

Got bait? Go fish.

I have focused on hunting deer over bait and have expressed my rationale for using alternative methods to hunt that are more in line with my particular style. Limited baiting for deer is still legal in Michigan, if the bait is spread out. However, bait piles – the practice of dumping bushels or even truckloads of feed – appears to be forever forbidden. To the Department of Natural Resources (DNR), the question of baiting is not ethical; rather, the practice of baiting relates to the health and well being of our herd. Like it or not, the question of ethics among the population is a significant weapon used against hunters – by hunters and non-hunters alike.

A week ago, I explained that I viewed a bait pile with a jaundiced eye when I first saw it afield some 25 years ago. In a survey of randomly dialed households conducted by the DNR, the question of ethical judgment was a very important reason for opposition to baiting. When respondents who oppose all forms of hunting were dropped from the analysis, 53 percent said baiting was unacceptable, and 9 percent were undecided. Some hunters and even more non-hunters believe baiting deer is too easy and “unfair” to the deer. Based on all information I have reviewed, I would not claim that baiting necessarily increases one’s chances of success; however, non-hunter perceptions of “unsporting” behaviors help to fuel the fairness issue. We can debate whether there is an advantage – unfair or otherwise – all we want, but I don’t believe the controversy will be resolved in the minds of people that do not hunt. So what? We need to understand that non-hunters are able to influence the establishment of game laws affecting hunters. Therefore, perception can evolve into hunters’ reality.

If we are to assume that hunters using bait tend to focus more on results than process, can we safely assume they have some type of advantage? Based on Michigan DNR Wildlife Division Issue Review Paper 5, which is a compilation of scientific studies relative to deer baiting issues in Michigan published February 26, 1999, under the title “Effect on Movement Patterns”, (A) behavioral change in deer frequently attributed to deer baiting is increased nocturnal activity (Charles 1993). Use of baited sites seemed to become more nocturnal as the hunts progressed, possibly reflecting increased wariness of deer due to continuous hunting pressure. This may suggest that human disturbance rather than the influence of bait may affect the nocturnal and diurnal behavior of deer. A Mississippi study reported that, as the number of hunters at baits sites increased, the daylight activity of the bucks at the sites decreased. That study noted that bucks used the bait stations during only 10 percent of the legal shooting hours. A Michigan DNR study concluded that disturbance affected deer activity more so than the use of bait (Wegner 1993).

These studies seem to indicate, that if hunters obey the 2-gallon bait limit, they must make plenty of trips afield, because 2 gallons can disappear quickly. As deer figure out the routine, the success rate drops accordingly.

Lazy hunters- and those that I believe help to depict hunters negatively in the eyes of the population – may violate the 2-gallon limit and illegally dump large piles to minimize trips to the woods. Of course, there is another legal option: the use of mechanical timed feeders. By law, they are limited to the same 2-gallons per day, but can spread the feed without human interference. This option would seem to make sense to those that bait on private land only, however.

Any type of baiting employed certainly doesn’t teach hunting skills. With baiting having become more widespread, woodsmanship appears to be going the way of the phone booth. In this age of fax machines, satellite TV, and picture phones, the use of bait to attract and kill deer is understandable, but that doesn’t make it acceptable to a good percentage of people.

It is my contention that short-term success is heavily outweighed by the negative aspects of baiting – be they perceived or otherwise. As hunting ground continues to vanish and city slickers inhabit bean-field lots developed from family farms, hunters may be wise to consider alternatives. For now, the hunters’ money talks, but those that remain complacent can expect more restrictions as a result of the vocal opposition’s tactics. I am certainly not naïve enough to think for a minute that all hunters will have come to the same conclusion as I have relative to baiting. However, if you’d like some viable options, follow along.

Whenever we hunters are pitted against one another in conceptual causes, the opposition, which can be other hunters, non-hunters, and animal extremists, has an advantage. If we become too obsessed with the killing of deer by whatever means, we may rationalize ourselves away from a more far-reaching, long-term goal: A viable hunting heritage.

When a hunter explains his particular hunting prowess to anyone, the story gets around. When he boasts how he took a shot from such a distance that would have made the Guinness Book of World Records, only to finish by explaining how he lost his wounded prize, the story gets around. He can even surmise how he “knows” he killed that buck, but that doesn’t count as one for the sportsmen, because his goal wasn’t to feed the coyotes. These distressing results fuel the opposition, which eats it up, dwells on it, adds a generalized spin to it, and distributes its message to the population for digestion.

Sure, there’s no law against flinging an arrow 30 yards past one’s personal limits of sanity; I just hope the prayer misses rather than maims. If some sandal-foot hiker stumbles upon fatally wounded or injured prey, his words help to erode the future of hunting for everyone when he spreads word of his encounter: “A hunter did this. Hunting is bad. It must be stopped.” The tale of the undisciplined shot is extended far beyond the pathetic scene. All hunters are painted as dimwitted with a broad brush that works to undermine the future of hunting. This is exactly how we become pitted against anti hunters and each other.

There’s also no law against baiting in Michigan, although we are not far from one. I understand that many hunters bait deer because they think it draws deer away from those not baiting. Or, maybe their neighbor is baiting deer heavily, so to get deer to their smaller property, they believe they must bait, too. Maybe so, but baiting does not counteract poor deer environment in terms of year-round habitat and nourishment. It does very little to instill hunting skills but does a great job of spreading controversy.

Is it possible to hunt over an acre or more of “bait” without painting the picture of a despicable hunter? How else can you describe a location near an apple orchard, a stand of white oaks, a bean field, or a cleverly conceived food plot? With some hard work at the appropriate planting time, a hunter can develop his own secret hot spot and never have to stink it up with bait-hauling trips. He can plant nutritious perennial alfalfa or clover and rest assured his fresh bait would be there when he arrives. He can also plant annual feasts of turnips, rape, beans, sunflowers, peas, etc. Yum, yum! The deer get the high protein they demand and there is no close-quarters, nose-to-nose, disease-spreading struggle for dominance at the pile.

It doesn’t take much; a patch as big as your bedroom can lure deer to stop on their way to social gatherings. Food plots can be prepared with a small tractor, an ATV, a rototiller, or a shovel and rake. And, when the snow is on and the baiters are home wondering where all the big bucks have gone, the hunter/farmer nourishes his herd, because hungry deer will paw their way to the food source that remains under their keen noses. The perennial paradise will have deer, turkeys, rabbits, pheasants, geese and the like in the habit of frequenting your secret observation post, while the wise hunter is at home loading ammo or sharpening broadheads.

Before bait piles were common, hunters practiced honing their skills by learning habitat needs of deer and then working areas of feed, water, travel routes, and bedding areas. Such tactics demand more of the hunter, but as time goes on, he will reap what he sows.

When I handload ammo, I do so with the realization that I have assembled a brass case, primer, powder, and bullet in such a way that it is unique to my needs. When I plant whitetail clover, I do so knowing that it is good for the overall well-being of the local deer herd and it’s also part of my long-term strategy for a successful hunt. I enjoy the actual process of handloading ammunition as much as I enjoy watching the clover sprout and blossom. And, a well-placed, disciplined shot makes the worthwhile effort that much more of a satisfying experience. Although there will always be those that will paint me with their broad brushes as part of their portrait of the shameful hunter, I will not be providing them with the paint.

Crows: They’re not Just for Breakfast Anymore

By Glen Wunderlich
Outdoor Columnist
Professional Outdoor Media Association

In case you haven’t noticed, crow hunting season is in full swing. If you missed the action so far, you have until the end of September to become crow-active. Many people consider this member of the Corvidae family to be a varmint, while others respect and revere them for their intelligence. However you choose to view them, it has become apparent that they are especially susceptible to West Nile Virus (WNV) infection, with crows and blue jays (another corvid member) accounting for between 50 and 90 percent of avian cases. It’s no wonder they have become the focus of surveillance efforts across North America. With innocent human life at stake through transmission of WNV from corvids to people, it confounds me that crows are protected 8 months out of the year.

It all started with the initial signing of an official Migratory Bird Treaty in 1936 between the United States and Mexico. Growing concerns about the status of endangered migratory birds, such as the spotted owl, got us started in this predicament of protection of a bird that really doesn’t migrate. Our government realized that birds flying from Central and South America to North America ran the gauntlet of hungry sustenance peasant hunters in search of their next meal. U.S. officials worried about possible extinction of certain birds and thus the treaty was signed February 7, 1936 in Mexico City and remains in effect today.

Article 1 of the US-Mexico Bird Migration Treaty (MIGRATE), allows both countries the utilization of the birds for the “purposes of sport, food, commerce and industry.” Article II places limitations relative to hunting seasons, which made it illegal to hunt birds past a certain point in the year. Article III regulates transportation of the birds – dead or alive – and requires a permit by both countries to be legal. Article IV states and names all bird species that are considered migratory, while 23 species are considered non-game birds, such as cranes and rails. So far, it seems to make sense, but here’s where it gets wacky.

Under article IV, there is an “Other” category, in which other species may be added to the list, if both parties agree. In 1972 the inexplicable happened: The Crow family was added to the list. So, in the stroke of the pen, crows went from vermin to vagary and remain conditionally protected today. In Michigan, where a fair number of these “migrating” masters of mischief seem to spend their winters, we can hunt them from February 1st through March 31st. The season also ran from August 1st through September 30th last year, but I am not going out on a limb, so to speak, to state it will be the same this year. However, crows may be taken outside of the open season during hunting hours, in compliance with federal regulations, if these birds are causing a nuisance or creating a health hazard. That would indicate to a normal thinking person that they’d be fair game any time. They “caws” trouble just about any time they are out of the nest and can be a health hazard from biting mosquitoes passing on WNV disease during our lengthy mosquito season. Ah, but it’s not that easy.

As part of MIGRATE, Federal Regulation 50 CFR part 21.43, crows may be taken under certain depredation situations. It states one doesn’t need a Federal permit (you gotta be kidding!), when crows are found committing or about to commit certain depredation upon ornamental or shade trees, agricultural crops, livestock, or wildlife or when they are concentrated in such numbers as to constitute a health hazard or other nuisance. But, don’t let the G-men catch you with any decoys, calls, or other devices to entice birds within gun range, because they are specifically prohibited under the depredation order by Section 21.41 (c). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) figures the basis for these restrictions is that it would be counterproductive to lure or entice crows into an area already experiencing depredation problems.

I realize most people don’t set out to eat crow, but they end up doing it involuntarily – sometimes even with foot in mouth. I have heard that 4 and 20 blackbirds are sufficient for one good-sized pie, but take note that the DNR advises to wear rubber or latex gloves when handling and cleaning dead animals. Tools used when processing birds should be disinfected after use with bleach (10% solution) and washed in soapy water. Consuming the meat of an infected bird has infected no humans to date. (Well, that’s something to crow about!) However, the meat of birds should be cooked thoroughly. Heating to an internal temperature of 170 to 180 degrees Fahrenheit will kill West Nile Virus as well as other bacteria, eliminating the risk of infection. Gotta run now. Got some crow-quettes on the grill.

Animal Lovers Unite

By Glen Wunderlich
Outdoor Columnist
Professional Outdoor Media Association

I love animals. As a matter of fact, I’ve never had one that was properly prepared and wasn’t absolutely delicious. That even goes for a raunchy ol’ 4 1/2 year old Upper Peninsula buck I took in 1986 that I couldn’t stomach with my typical flash-fried approach. I tried to ease that wildness down my throat repeatedly but I ended up pawning it off to my black Lab mutant, Otis, who eup his nose to nothing short of onions and apple seeds – both of which he knew instinctively as poison to his system. (He’d chomp down whole apples and always spit out the seeds.)

My good friend, “Fast” Frank Kellison, brought over a pressure cooker and canning paraphernalia and that gamey gastro garbage was transformed into a gourmet delight. No kidding. Once in the jars, it took up no room in the freezer and was good for years. Any recipe that called for meat got the instant meal treatment of canned venison whenever I wanted. We still had a mess of venison to deal with from the 190 pounds of dressed deer, so we found a recipe for marinating meat in preparation for some tasty jerky. Once again, you would never have known how foul the stuff was before this doctoring duo did it up.

In Michigan’s southern counties, we are blessed with venison that is quite palatable without any French chef’s tricks. Fortunately for me, our mostly farm-fed game affords me some fine eating without all the masquerading fuss. Maybe it’s a guy thing; maybe it’s just me, but I am not one for slaving over the stove for anything. I don’t live to eat; rather, I eat to live and that means from freezer to microwave to skillet to mouth in a half hour or less. I guess it’s proper at times, but I despise spending an entire evening taste testing all manner of worldly delicacies at some fancy downtown-tablecloth-Miss Manners-affair, only to miss the big game on TV. It never ceases to amaze me how much people will shove down their throats – especially when someone else is buying – and then top it off with some debilitating dessert and wash it all down with a Diet Coke so they can keep their girlish figures.

I much prefer lean meals derived from the wild as opposed to any store-bought packaged or processed meats. According to The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), I have it all wrong: “There once was a time when most Americans needed to hunt to put food on the table, but hunting today is a recreational pastime…”The HSUS believes that “causing suffering and death is by definition inhumane, regardless of method.” Its point is that killing is bad. Could it be that they can stab it with their steely knives but they just can’t kill the beast? I wonder what HSUS members eat if they don’t have it killed for them first. It sure can’t be chickens, pigs, cattle, or fish. I’m sure the poor defenseless head of lettuce brimming with life would object to their plucking. Does it not live, as does the tiny alfalfa sprout? They claim doves are “hardly a viable food source…There simply isn’t much meat on them” but just how many sprouts must one kill to be satisfied? And, if plants don’t have feelings, how come we were encouraged to talk to them in the 70s?

Some time ago, our family was sharing a birthday meal in honor of our granddaughter’s 7th birthday at Bill Knapp’s. The kids ordered regular kiddie food and I ordered trout. When my meal arrived, fins intact, my granddaughter sitting next to me shrieked at the top of her lungs, “Grandpa! Grandpa! It’s a real fish!” I attempted to coax her into a sample but she’d have none of it. As long a fish comes breaded and square, it’s not real fish. And, burger that comes packaged in a bun isn’t really from an animal that had to be killed. The bottom line is that if we are going to eat it, it’s a good idea to kill it first. Just make mine wild and well done.

Hog On!

By Glen Wunderlich
Outdoor Columnist
Professional Outdoor Media Association

Down in the wildwood, sittin’ on a log,
Finger on the trigger and eye on a hog;
My hold was good, so I let ‘er go,
And that hog de-parted to Ohio.

That sure takes some doin’ from Lincoln County, West Virginia, home of General Chuck Yeager and Steve McComas. Since most people know a bit about ol’ Chuck, here’s a little of what I know of Steve, affectionately known as one of the biggest liars in the area. As a matter of fact, while we were at the Vandalia Gathering at the State Capitol Complex in Charleston, they held a liars’ contest as part of the weekend’s festivities and wouldn’t let Steve compete. Turned out, they had a rule against allowing professionals. Folks say there’s a dead giveaway to know when he’s not telling the truth, however: his mouth is open.

Actually, he’s a good ol’ boy who’s introduced me to some of the finest hunting land in the country. He knows the back roads and those who live among the hills and calls out their names and waves as he drives by. I couldn’t wipe that grin off my face as he sawed on his fiddle at a local get-together in Branchland Friday night, The Vandalia Gathering in Charleston on Saturday, at a Guyan Valley High School class reunion Saturday evening, and back to the final day of pickin’, fiddlin’, and singin’ at the Capitol on Sunday. Man, there’s nothing else like it, but it was time for a change of pace and some Southern style groundhog huntin’ was on Memorial Day’s agenda.

We searched high and low and found the orchard grass hay far too tall to spot a hog, so we headed where we could look down onto a field prepared for tobacco planting at the Stratton farm. Soon, I spotted movement on a distant log pile across the field well below us. Swinging into action I read 177 yards on my rangefinder to the logs from the vehicle. Steve obligingly offered the first chance to me and I opted for some serious horsepower: my Browning A-Bolt in .300 Winchester Magnum and Shepherd scope fed with 110 grain Hornady V-Max verminators. I eased on down the hill with Steve’s homemade blue jean sandbags and set them on the down slope. Soon, I found a second hog atop the pile, mere feet from the other one; Steve let me know there was a third one there, too, but I already had a plan.

The one on the left was nominated and his number came up in 15 one hundredths of a second from ignition. His associate couldn’t comprehend the quick disappearance of his pal and he sat there studying on it long enough for me to get another missile from my pocket. Another one de-parted to Ohio. I never saw the third one but I focused on the logs, while Steve checked out the low ground behind us. Before long, curiosity and my home-brewed charge got the best of the third hapless log hog and we headed to Cowhide Branch Road.

We met Jimmy working near the sawmill and he willingly gave us permission, although he was pessimistic about our chances. As we poked along the winding dirt road, we came across four people sitting at the back of a tractor setting tobacco plants. We safely distanced ourselves from them at the far end of the field, where I noticed movement in some high grass. I retrieved my .223 Thompson/Center Contender pistol with its factory 14-inch, ported barrel under a fixed 7-power Burris long-eye-relief handgun scope and chambered a zippy 40-grain V-Max bomb. Yardage was confirmed to be 117 and another one succumbed. Investigating the scene, we determined there were more hogs at hand so we got back into position at the same place where I had taken the last one. This time, Steve tried his hand with the Contender, as I watched through my binoculars. Unfortunately, Steve didn’t have his earplugs in securely and paid the price with a headache afterward, while the hog paid most dearly.

Before long, the farmers finished their chores and we had the place to ourselves. With room to boom, I confidently put the .300 Winchester back into action and took out a couple more pigs making it 6 for 6 on the day plus Steve’s contribution. I set the hogs out for the vultures, and before we drove off, they gracefully swooped in below the hardwoods’ canopy. When we returned the next day, they were still on the nourishing main course.
In a land where Republicans are as common as ugly girls competing in the Miss America pageant; where music is produced without electricity; where venison goes well with deer meat; where vultures always show up with buzzards; where woodchucks and groundhogs are despised equally by farmers, I was welcomed everywhere and always encouraged to return. I think I will.

Hand Cannons Anyone?

By Glen Wunderlich
Outdoor Columnist
Professional Outdoor Media Association

Dirty Harry, step aside. Your .44 caliber revolver is about as magnum as a 4-ounce bathroom Dixie cup. Today there’s bigger and badder. I’m talking Hand Cannons.

Founded by handgun authority and world famous handgun hunter J.D. Jones, SSK Industries of Wintersville, Ohio, specializes in manufacturing some of the hardest hitting and most accurate large caliber handguns and loads in the world. Back in 1979, Jones founded his business to produce big-game guns that could be used anywhere on this planet on the most ferocious and dangerous animals in existence.

So what is a “Hand Cannon?” J.D. defines it as at least .35 caliber and minimum case capacity of a .444 Marlin. Being a fan of the Thompson/Center Contender, and particularly one of the big bores, I had to try one out in 45-70 caliber. And, friends, it’s just like J.D. says when you squeeze one off: “You’ve got a tiger by the tail.”

If Dirty Harry’s .44 Magnum was loaded with 240-grain bullets, a stiff load could have been pushed to 1450 feet per second (fps) in his revolver. Not bad. But, 50 grains of IMR 3031 powder propels my 400-grain Speer bullet at 1525 fps in J.D.’s 14-inch custom ported Shilen barrel. That’s a 67 percent increase in bullet weight traveling faster than Dirty Harry’s “most powerful” offering.

Here’s another way of comparing the effects of these two big bores. The same .44 Magnum load will produce 1116 foot-pounds of energy at the muzzle. The 45-70 Hand Cannon will surpass that at 150 yards and still has over 1000 foot pounds of energy at 200 yards! With a 125-yard zero the bullet is never over 3 inches high and drops to 3.44 inches low at 150 yards. With my conservative, self-imposed 6-inch kill zone for deer, my point-blank range is still an abundant 150 yards with a handgun. Yeah, but how can anyone be accurate that far with a handgun?

Good optics is a good place to start and a Bushnell HoloSight fits the bill. Although there is no magnification with the HoloSight, the 1-minute-of-angle superimposed laser dot aiming device is tailor-made for hunting. The sight permits quick target acquisition – much more so than any duplex reticle style – is very good in low light, and can take a pounding. And, believe me, a pounding it takes.

This is not the type of firearm with which Matt Dillon would be able to quick-draw from his holster and drop a bunch of bad guys; after all, it’s only a single shot. But, for stand hunting with a solid rest for deer, it’s superb. It has taken game as large as 1800-pound Asian Buffalo. Just ask J.D. Jones. And, if you are as tough as your game, the SSK barrel’s throat will accommodate bone busting 500-grain bullets. Friends, this sledgehammer round will make your .44 Magnum feel like you are back to shooting kiddie cap guns. You want penetration? How about clean through 6 Lansing phone books!

You want recoil? I doubt it, but too bad. With a white-knuckle grip, it’ll jar your fillings loose and blow your hat off. Don’t get me wrong; you had better be hanging on. But, I like to allow some flex in the wrist and arms to provide shock-absorbing relief from the Hand Cannon. That way, it’ll just blow your hat off. The porting keeps the barrel from jumping, but the torque and rearward energy transfer is still substantial in the hand’s web. For the recoil sensitive, stick with the 300-grain “varmint” loads. What these loads lack in mass, they make up in velocity and are plenty good enough for the largest of deer.

When handgun hunting was legalized in the southernmost Zone III in Michigan, T/C Contenders were against the rules. Seems some lawmakers were afraid that bottle-necked case ammunition might be used. Therefore, all single-shot pistols were outlawed, even though they were designed as serious and effective hunting tools and could have been used with the same ammunition that was legal in repeating firearms. Ironically, it was legal for some street urchin to go afield with his snub-nosed .38 Special, but disciplined, single-shot hunters were banned.

It took some time, but common sense has prevailed. Single-shot pistols are now legal in Zone III, as long as ammunition is of the straight-walled variety (no bottle-necked cases) and it is a minimum of .35 caliber. (In the traditional rifle zones, handguns using bottle-necked cases are legal.) So, go ahead and make your day the Hand Cannon way.

Sighting In – Tips and Techniques

By Glen Wunderlich
Outdoor Columnist
Professional Outdoor Media Association

Here are some tips to get sighted in properly. As mentioned in previous writings, a six-inch kill zone will be the standard from any shooting position in the field for deer-sized targets. For target shooting, however, smaller targets help with precision. The orange squares with the black outlines are my favorites for scoped guns and plain black circles are best for iron sights, red dot sights and HoloSights.

Caution: start with a clean gun with no oil or grease in the barrel. Make sure everything is tight – especially scope bases and rings. Wear good hearing protection and protective glasses. Start at 25 yards and make sure you have a good, solid rest at the fore end and butt stock. Sandbags work well but there are store-bought shooting rests that work very well, too. This is not the time to use your elbows for a rest; you can do that in the field, but not when testing ammo. The idea when sighting in is to minimize human error.

Shoot three shots and find the middle of the group. (If you are missing the paper completely, move in to about 10 feet. A single shot will usually be enough to let you know which direction to go.) Remember, at 25 yards to make adjustments at four times what you would at 100 yards. For most guns, you are ready to move the target to 100 yards, if you are dead on at 25 yards. Don’t change anything and shoot another 3-shot group at 100 yards, find the center of the group and adjust to your chosen elevation at 100 yards. Even with our conservative 6-inch kill zone target, we can maximize “Point-Blank Range” by having the bullet or slug impact somewhat high at 100 yards. A few examples follow.

The Point-Blank Range of any gun is the distance out to which a hunter can hold right on the center of the kill zone and be able to hit within the vital zone. This means, if you set up your gun properly, you won’t have to guess whether to hold high or low on the deer. Just go right for the center of the vitals. A lot of hunters make the mistake of sighting in dead on at 100 yards. A 30-06 with a 180-grain spire point bullet going 2700 Feet Per Second (FPS) at the muzzle, with a 100-yard zero puts the bullet 3 inches low at 175 yards. Using the 6-inch kill zone, 175 yards becomes your limit, because the bullet is at the bottom of the vitals.

However, if the same cartridge is set for a 215 yard zero, the bullet reaches its peak of 3 inches high at 130 yards and is 3 inches low at 255 yards. As long as you know the deer is no farther than 255 yards, you can aim dead center and take him out cleanly. Just by changing the zero, you gain 80 additional yards.

Shotguns are relatively slow in comparison – even the hottest sabot offerings of today. Federal, Winchester, and Remington all have high-priced loads costing $12 to $20 per box of 5 rounds boasting 1900 FPS and these can be good using the 6-inch bulls eye philosophy out to 175 yards. Remington’s Premier Core-Lokt Ultra uses a 385-grain bullet and sighted in at 150 yards, will be 6.2 inches low at 200 yards. As fast as these are, you can see that the bullet drops some 6.2 inches in the 50 yards from 150 to 200 yards. The typical ¾ inch, 1-ounce shotgun slugs are heavier and some 500 FPS slower. The best bet is to get to the range and test with your gun and loads, because there are just too many variables to rely exclusively on charts. Whatever you choose to shoot, just make sure the bullet/slug never gets higher or lower than 3 inches when holding dead on.

Once you get sighted in, you can try shooting from various positions and with rests you may use in the field. As long as you can keep 9 out of 10 in the six-inch circle, you are shooting within ethical standards. When finished, don’t clean the gun’s barrel, because a clean barrel may change your point of impact. Just unload the gun, wipe off the exterior, and put it safely away and it will be hunter-ready when needed. Clean it after the season.
Of course, muzzleloaders being stoked with black powder or Pyrodex must be cleaned immediately because of sulfur content, or you run the risk of corrosion within a day! I prefer Hodgon’s Triple Seven for extreme velocity and lack of corrosion concerns. More on this subject later.

The Disciplined Shot Afield

By Glen Wunderlich
Outdoor Columnist
Professional Outdoor Media Association

Since deer season is already upon us, I will focus on a means to determine what your effective range is. It doesn’t matter whether you are shooting arrows above 300 feet per second (fps) or recurve-propelled shafts at less than half that. During firearms season, it won’t even matter if you choose a powerful handgun, the slowest muzzleloader, or a center fire rifle with horsepower to spare.

I believe it was the late local icon, Jack Eddy, that wanted us to use a six-inch bulls eye when practicing for deer. This means our practice target is some 3 inches less in diameter than an actual kill zone of a deer; however, using the conservative approach gives us humans a built-in margin for error. Now, here’s the test: If you can put 9 out of 10 shots in the six-inch circle, you are within your range. Be honest with yourself and find out how good you really are. If you are getting any less than 9 out of 10 in the circle, get closer until you are able to do it. This is what a sportsman does. Remember, above all else, we must all do our part to minimize less than perfect shots. It’s our duty.

Set up your six-inch target farther and farther away and keep testing with the 9 out of 10 barometer. If you are going to hunt from an elevated platform, do your testing from a similar platform height at known ranges. When you determine your effective range, you only need to translate your knowledge to the field.

If you are hunting from particular set areas, such as tree stands, or a certain ground blinds, the set up becomes easier. Use a rangefinder or step off natural markers such as trees and identify them by memory or by visible means. When deer come into your setup, you will have figured out the actual range in advance and will be able to take your shot confidently.

There are many methods to increase your effective range, but the best one is practice. Once you have done your sighting in, begin to shoot offhand, kneeling, or prone. If you will use a handgun, practice with a good rest. Find out how difficult it is to hit that 6-inch circle, while using a makeshift rest such as the side of the tree. It’s not usually going to be as easy as it was under practice conditions once you get in the field, but that’s why we use the six-inch target. Stick with it and hunt within your particular capabilities and you will be doing your part to display sportsmanship to the game and everyone that hears your stories.

Development of a Sportsman

By Glen Wunderlich
Outdoor Columnist
Professional Outdoor Media Association

As a lifelong adult hunter, my purpose is to develop sportsmen’s knowledge in an effort to promote hunting for those that choose to hunt. Because the true sportsman engenders good will, one can help his own cause by adhering to certain guiding precepts. But, before getting into those, just what is a sportsman? According to a Mr. Webster, “A person who can take loss or defeat without complaint, victory without gloating, and who treats his opponents with fairness.” Relative to hunting, a sportsman, it follows, is a person who can go home empty handed and be satisfied. The sportsman, therefore, chooses only shots that he has a very high likelihood of making. Adopting certain principles leads to discipline in the field, which translates into fairness to the quarry. If you have had your share of missed shots, or just want to have as much as possible going for you when you do take a shot, read on.

If the goal in hunting is to bag game, then one may become a failure at sportsmanship. When a hunter becomes undisciplined…taking shots that are beyond one’s capability, taking shots at running deer, bad angle shots, a little too dark, etc, he crosses the line. If we choose to be sportsmen, we must pass on all but the best opportunities. And, as a result, we will have less wounded game hobbling about. If ever we sportsmen will be able to bridge the gap between hunters and those against hunting, being disciplined in the field is the best place to start.

Nobody wants to see injured animals. Granted, it happens sometimes, but we should constantly strive to minimize bad shots. Crippled deer can be seen by anyone and some people, reacting to what they see, may attempt to limit every hunter’s rights through the legislative process. So, a sportsman must develop the single-shot mentality, knowing that some situations permit the prey to live another day. He knows there can be no wild shots and that bullet or arrow placement is the key – not firepower.

So, if the goal in the field were not necessarily to bag game, what would it be? I am not suggesting that bagging game is not good; however, if the hunter becomes obsessed with a kill to brag about, then he very well may become the type of hunter that gives those opposed to hunting a valid reason to oppose hunting for everyone. I say let’s not give the “antis” any more fuel for such a fire.

A sportsman can be content as he witnesses the wild world waking up or going to sleep. He is content being one with nature before the sun comes up. He marvels at the sight of a coyote, a wood duck or even a squirrel as they go about their daily business of survival. And, at the same time he is totally prepared to take home his prize. But, if luck doesn’t go his way, he believes his patience will be rewarded another day. Make your goal to be satisfied with the outdoor experience that you have no matter what the day may bring, and by definition, you will become a true sportsman.

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